Institutional Programs

Study of Impact of In-service Teacher Training under SSA on Classroom Transaction


Elementary education now is a Fundamental Right of all the children of the country. It has become necessary to provide quality elementary education to all the children in the age group of 6-14 years. With a view to translate this concern into reality, successive governments initiated various programmes and schemes from time to time for quality improvement of education, the most significant being Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) launched by the Government of India in 2001 to attain universal elementary education of satisfactory quality by 2010. To provide quality elementary education. SSA rightly recognized the need to provide recurrent training to teachers who are already on the job. Thus, theacher development in the form of in-service teacher training programme is one of the thrust areas of SSA to ensure quality of elementary education. Such training is an important input to enable teachers to transact curriculum through a participatory and student centered approach. In-service teacher training programmes, in general, have been developed in every state with active involvement of SCERTs and implemented at district or block level with the support of DIETs, BRCs, CRCs and NGOs.

In-service training programme are organized every year in all the state. However, apart from a few sporadic state level studies, not much has been done to assess the impact of such programmes on teaching – learning process in classrooms. The need for a national level study to assess the impact of in-service training programmes has been arisen in view of so much of attention given to teacher training under SSA. It is, therefore, important to find out how this training is helping in development of teachers’ skill in transacting curriculum and motivating students. Teacher training has eventually to result in improvement in quality of education better student comprehension and as adoption of effective classroom processes would lead to better performance in school achievement.

The present study primarily aims at assessing the content and impact of such training programmes on classroom transaction by teachers and the impact of the same on students performace. The study will specifically focus on teacher training programmes of the year 2010-11 in a few selected states. It will specifically examine how the recent training has affected teachers’ understanding on matters covered in their training modules, how they are translating it in the classroom situation, how the follow up is being implemented as envisaged in the training module and what are its impact on classroom transaction.

Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to examine the content of the existing in-service teacher training programmes organized under SSA to assess their impact on the actual classroom teaching and to suggest changes in the training programmes for making them more effective. Hence, the following objectives are formulated for the study.

  1. To assess the adequacy of training inputs including process of planning, preparation and content of modules & materials used in training programmes of 2008-09, 2009-10 and 2010-11 and to find out changes in training strategy and programmes over the three years.
  2. To study the transactional modalities of the training programmes of 2010-11.
  3. To study the perceptions of the teachers about the efficacy and usefulness of in-service training and to examine how the perception differs with gender, experience and qualifications.
  4. To assess the capability of resource persons/master trainers in terms of their training and experience, their preparedness, their views on the impact of training on teachers, in their classroom processes and students’ performance.
  5. To determine the impact of training programme in terms of change in classroom practices of teachers.
  6. To find out whether students observe any change in teacher behaviour and method of teaching after training.
  7. To assess the opinion of other functionaries such as BRC/CRC coordinators and VEC/SMC members on the impact of teacher training on classroom processes.
  8. To find out the constraints or problems, if any, in using training inputs in classroom transactions.
  9. To suggest measures for improving training programmes and ensuring greater utilization of training outcomes by teachers in classroom teacher.

Research Design

The research design would be a combination of participatory observation, survey, case study and desk appraisal methods. The objectives of in-service teacher programmes as articulated in training guidelines of 2010-11 would be taken as basis for assessing the teacher training programmes. Relevant documents will be collected from various states and then analyzed. Information relevant to the study objectives will be collected from various functionaries and institutions concerned with training programmes such as State Project Office, SCERT, District Project Offices, DIETs, SRG, DRG, BRC/CRC and also from a sample of teachers and head teacher of schools. The process adopted for development of the training material and organization of training programmes will also be assessed through classroom observation. The impact of training will be studied in terms of change in teacher behavior and perception of students about the change, if any. A control group of teacher who has not yet received training in 2010-11 will be selected to find how their classroom process differs from that of the teachers who received training. These teachers will be selected from similar schools of the same cluster. Besides this, the training design would be placed and discussed in the Advisory Group Meeting of the project after getting approval from MHRD and the project proposal will be finalized on the basis of their suggestions and observations.


The study will be conducted in fifteen states, namely, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujrat, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Orrisa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. These state have been selected to represent variety in the training model and approach adopted for in-service training of teachers. Within a state, 2 to 5 districts will be selected depending on the size of the state for studying their in-service training programmes. These districts will be selected from the different parts of the state.

In each district, 3 to 5 training centers will be selected where training programmes for teachers are to be organized. In all, 12 training centers will be selected in all state except Uttar Pradesh, Meghalaya and Nagaland. In Uttar Pradesh 15 training centers will be covered and in Meghalaya and Nagaland each 10 training centers will be studied. Two thirds of these will be the center for training of primary teachers and one third will be for training of upper primary teachers. From these centers, information will be collected on the teachers who will undergo training during 2010-11.

The training programmes will be assessed in respect of content, pedagogical processes and social and other issues (such as behavious with students, discrimination practices, if any, concern for improvement of school and dealing with parents and the community).

Pre-test and Post-test will be administered to all the teachers who will receive training at the selected centers. Post-test will be given after completion of the training. The test will be based on the content of the training programme.

From the list of teachers who receive training at the selected centeres during 2010-11, 4 to 5 teachers from each centre belonging to different schools will be selected representing both men and women and different lengths of teaching experience (say, 5 years or less and more than 5 years). Their teaching will be observed in classroom in the schools where they work. The classroom processes of the selected teachers will be observed soon after the training programme. In addition, classes of the teachers not deputed for training in 30 schools (20 primary and 10 upper primary) in each state will also be observed to find out the difference, if any, between the teachers who received training and those who did not. For classroom observations, it is proposed that 2 observers spend 2 days in each school to observe the teaching of all the classes by the teacher who received training. In order to get feedback from students on teacher behaviour and performance after their training, 4 students of class IV or V (Class VII in upper primary schools) will be selected for interview using an interview schedule. In addition, case study will be conducted of 15 training programmes, one in each state.

Approach for Conducting the Study

The Department of Teacher Education and Extension (DTEE), NCERT with the help of all the five RIEs and a few universities and other educational institutions will conduct the study at national level. Principals of RIEs will assign the responsibility for the study and will act as State Coordinator. The State Coordinators will help DTEE, NCERT in developing tools, and guidelines for data collection, data analysis and preparation of research report. Workshops and meeting of experts and State Coordinators will prepare state reports and DTEE, NCERT, will prepare a synthesis report at the national level.

For collection of data, a team of two investigators will observe the training at a training centre and the same team will visit schools for classroom observation and collection of data. Each state will have 6 such teams except in Meghalaya and Nagaland in which case 5 teams will work. Each team will work for 15 days at training and 3 days a school which includes traveling time also.

Expected Outcomes

The following reports will be prepared.

  1. Reports of “Impact of Teacher Training on Classroom Transaction” for the 15 states.
  2. National Report on “Impact of Teacher Training on Classroom Transaction”.

Time Frame

The study will be completed in 12 months.

Present Status (April, 2011)

Dr. F. G. Dkhar, Associate Professor, NERIE, Shillong and Dr. S. K. Pandey, Assistant Professor, NERIE, Shillong are the state coordinators of Meghalaya and Nagaland respectively for this study. This study is being conducted in a few selected districts of Meghalaya (East Khasi Hills and West Garo Hills) and Nagaland (Dimapur and Mokokchung). First phase of data collection in the above mentioned districts have been completed. During this phase, data were collected from the different block level training centers. The second phase of the data collection will be over by the end of April, 2011. During this phase, data will be gathered from school through observation of teaching transaction in classroom and focus group interview with the elementary level students to see the impact of in- service teachers training.

Scheme of Financial Assistance for Strengthening Education in Values

About the Scheme

The present scheme is aimed at promoting a holistic and integrated approach involving the school, family, and community. It is woven in the framework of values required for living in harmony with self and others. The values that need to be strengthened include basic human values and the values enshrined in our Constitution and other range of values – social, moral, cultural, aesthetic, scientific etc.

The projects to be sponsored under the scheme will have implications for education in values among different stakeholders/target groups concerned with school education and teacher education.


The scheme would make available financial assistance to the educational institutions/organisations/voluntary trusts, NGOs etc. for strengthening values in education. The scheme would promote projects, programmes and activities in line with the conceptualization of values and education for values suggested in the policy statements/documents, approved by the government. The specific objectives of the scheme are to:

Areas of Support

 The project proposals related to the following areas will be given preference.

Nature of Activities


Methodology of Scheme Implementation

The Department of Educational Psychology and Foundations of Education (DEPEE/NIE) NCERT has been designed to function as the nodal centre for developing and implementing the scheme, along with the regional centres in five Regional Institute of Education (RIEs) located at Ajmer, Bhopal, Mysore, Shillong and Bhubaneswar. An advertisement for inviting applications would be put up in the leading news papers, and also on NCERT website ( for inviting applications. The applicants will submit their proposals region- wise to the concerned Regional Institutes of Education (please see application form), however, the organizations located in Delhi and National Capital Region will submit their application to the nodal centre at NIE/NCERT, Delhi. The nodal centre as well as the REIs will constitute various committees like Pre Project Appraisal Committee (PPAC) and committee/panel of experts for processing applications, and Grant–in–Aid Committee (GIAC) at NIE/NCERT, for final review and recommendations.

Dr. S. C. Roy, Associate Professor, NERIE is the coordinator for this program in the NERIE.