Study of Impact of In-service Teacher Training under SSA on Classroom Transaction
Elementary education now is a Fundamental Right of all the children of the country. It has become necessary to provide quality elementary education to all the children in the age group of 6-14 years. With a view to translate this concern into reality, successive governments initiated various programmes and schemes from time to time for quality improvement of education, the most significant being Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) launched by the Government of India in 2001 to attain universal elementary education of satisfactory quality by 2010. To provide quality elementary education. SSA rightly recognized the need to provide recurrent training to teachers who are already on the job. Thus, theacher development in the form of in-service teacher training programme is one of the thrust areas of SSA to ensure quality of elementary education. Such training is an important input to enable teachers to transact curriculum through a participatory and student centered approach. In-service teacher training programmes, in general, have been developed in every state with active involvement of SCERTs and implemented at district or block level with the support of DIETs, BRCs, CRCs and NGOs.
In-service training programme are organized every year in all the state. However, apart from a few sporadic state level studies, not much has been done to assess the impact of such programmes on teaching – learning process in classrooms. The need for a national level study to assess the impact of in-service training programmes has been arisen in view of so much of attention given to teacher training under SSA. It is, therefore, important to find out how this training is helping in development of teachers’ skill in transacting curriculum and motivating students. Teacher training has eventually to result in improvement in quality of education better student comprehension and as adoption of effective classroom processes would lead to better performance in school achievement.
The present study primarily aims at assessing the content and impact of such training programmes on classroom transaction by teachers and the impact of the same on students performace. The study will specifically focus on teacher training programmes of the year 2010-11 in a few selected states. It will specifically examine how the recent training has affected teachers’ understanding on matters covered in their training modules, how they are translating it in the classroom situation, how the follow up is being implemented as envisaged in the training module and what are its impact on classroom transaction.
Objectives of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to examine the content of the existing in-service teacher training programmes organized under SSA to assess their impact on the actual classroom teaching and to suggest changes in the training programmes for making them more effective. Hence, the following objectives are formulated for the study.
- To assess the adequacy of training inputs including process of planning, preparation and content of modules & materials used in training programmes of 2008-09, 2009-10 and 2010-11 and to find out changes in training strategy and programmes over the three years.
- To study the transactional modalities of the training programmes of 2010-11.
- To study the perceptions of the teachers about the efficacy and usefulness of in-service training and to examine how the perception differs with gender, experience and qualifications.
- To assess the capability of resource persons/master trainers in terms of their training and experience, their preparedness, their views on the impact of training on teachers, in their classroom processes and students’ performance.
- To determine the impact of training programme in terms of change in classroom practices of teachers.
- To find out whether students observe any change in teacher behaviour and method of teaching after training.
- To assess the opinion of other functionaries such as BRC/CRC coordinators and VEC/SMC members on the impact of teacher training on classroom processes.
- To find out the constraints or problems, if any, in using training inputs in classroom transactions.
- To suggest measures for improving training programmes and ensuring greater utilization of training outcomes by teachers in classroom teacher.
The research design would be a combination of participatory observation, survey, case study and desk appraisal methods. The objectives of in-service teacher programmes as articulated in training guidelines of 2010-11 would be taken as basis for assessing the teacher training programmes. Relevant documents will be collected from various states and then analyzed. Information relevant to the study objectives will be collected from various functionaries and institutions concerned with training programmes such as State Project Office, SCERT, District Project Offices, DIETs, SRG, DRG, BRC/CRC and also from a sample of teachers and head teacher of schools. The process adopted for development of the training material and organization of training programmes will also be assessed through classroom observation. The impact of training will be studied in terms of change in teacher behavior and perception of students about the change, if any. A control group of teacher who has not yet received training in 2010-11 will be selected to find how their classroom process differs from that of the teachers who received training. These teachers will be selected from similar schools of the same cluster. Besides this, the training design would be placed and discussed in the Advisory Group Meeting of the project after getting approval from MHRD and the project proposal will be finalized on the basis of their suggestions and observations.
The study will be conducted in fifteen states, namely, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujrat, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Orrisa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. These state have been selected to represent variety in the training model and approach adopted for in-service training of teachers. Within a state, 2 to 5 districts will be selected depending on the size of the state for studying their in-service training programmes. These districts will be selected from the different parts of the state.
In each district, 3 to 5 training centers will be selected where training programmes for teachers are to be organized. In all, 12 training centers will be selected in all state except Uttar Pradesh, Meghalaya and Nagaland. In Uttar Pradesh 15 training centers will be covered and in Meghalaya and Nagaland each 10 training centers will be studied. Two thirds of these will be the center for training of primary teachers and one third will be for training of upper primary teachers. From these centers, information will be collected on the teachers who will undergo training during 2010-11.
The training programmes will be assessed in respect of content, pedagogical processes and social and other issues (such as behavious with students, discrimination practices, if any, concern for improvement of school and dealing with parents and the community).
Pre-test and Post-test will be administered to all the teachers who will receive training at the selected centers. Post-test will be given after completion of the training. The test will be based on the content of the training programme.
From the list of teachers who receive training at the selected centeres during 2010-11, 4 to 5 teachers from each centre belonging to different schools will be selected representing both men and women and different lengths of teaching experience (say, 5 years or less and more than 5 years). Their teaching will be observed in classroom in the schools where they work. The classroom processes of the selected teachers will be observed soon after the training programme. In addition, classes of the teachers not deputed for training in 30 schools (20 primary and 10 upper primary) in each state will also be observed to find out the difference, if any, between the teachers who received training and those who did not. For classroom observations, it is proposed that 2 observers spend 2 days in each school to observe the teaching of all the classes by the teacher who received training. In order to get feedback from students on teacher behaviour and performance after their training, 4 students of class IV or V (Class VII in upper primary schools) will be selected for interview using an interview schedule. In addition, case study will be conducted of 15 training programmes, one in each state.
Approach for Conducting the Study
The Department of Teacher Education and Extension (DTEE), NCERT with the help of all the five RIEs and a few universities and other educational institutions will conduct the study at national level. Principals of RIEs will assign the responsibility for the study and will act as State Coordinator. The State Coordinators will help DTEE, NCERT in developing tools, and guidelines for data collection, data analysis and preparation of research report. Workshops and meeting of experts and State Coordinators will prepare state reports and DTEE, NCERT, will prepare a synthesis report at the national level.
For collection of data, a team of two investigators will observe the training at a training centre and the same team will visit schools for classroom observation and collection of data. Each state will have 6 such teams except in Meghalaya and Nagaland in which case 5 teams will work. Each team will work for 15 days at training and 3 days a school which includes traveling time also.
The following reports will be prepared.
- Reports of “Impact of Teacher Training on Classroom Transaction” for the 15 states.
- National Report on “Impact of Teacher Training on Classroom Transaction”.
The study will be completed in 12 months.
Present Status (April, 2011)
Dr. F. G. Dkhar, Associate Professor, NERIE, Shillong and Dr. S. K. Pandey, Assistant Professor, NERIE, Shillong are the state coordinators of Meghalaya and Nagaland respectively for this study. This study is being conducted in a few selected districts of Meghalaya (East Khasi Hills and West Garo Hills) and Nagaland (Dimapur and Mokokchung). First phase of data collection in the above mentioned districts have been completed. During this phase, data were collected from the different block level training centers. The second phase of the data collection will be over by the end of April, 2011. During this phase, data will be gathered from school through observation of teaching transaction in classroom and focus group interview with the elementary level students to see the impact of in- service teachers training.
Scheme of Financial Assistance for Strengthening Education in Values
About the Scheme
The present scheme is aimed at promoting a holistic and integrated approach involving the school, family, and community. It is woven in the framework of values required for living in harmony with self and others. The values that need to be strengthened include basic human values and the values enshrined in our Constitution and other range of values – social, moral, cultural, aesthetic, scientific etc.
The projects to be sponsored under the scheme will have implications for education in values among different stakeholders/target groups concerned with school education and teacher education.
The scheme would make available financial assistance to the educational institutions/organisations/voluntary trusts, NGOs etc. for strengthening values in education. The scheme would promote projects, programmes and activities in line with the conceptualization of values and education for values suggested in the policy statements/documents, approved by the government. The specific objectives of the scheme are to:
- augment the efforts of voluntary agencies/organisations in strengthening education for values through formal and non- formal education.
- enable organizations to showcase their work/innovations in promotion of values having implications for school education and teacher education.
- promote networking among organizations to bring about synergy in their efforts.
Areas of Support
The project proposals related to the following areas will be given preference.
- Peace in different philosophical perspectives and implications for school Education
- Human rights, Gender equality/discrimination, Concern for Justice and Cultural Diversity
- Promotion of Indian Constitutional values for National Integration and Citizenship education
- Ecology and peace
- Comparative analyses of value-based teachings of different religions.
- Critical analysis of conflicts in different cultural setups.
- Education for removing biases, prejudices and stereotypes against caste, gender, socio-economic inequalities, culture, language etc.
- Promoting appreciation of cultural diversity, cultural heritage, intercultural sensitivity and interfaith understanding
- Awareness and understanding of craft, art, and traditions of all regions represented in the cultures of the country for intercultural sensitivity and promoting national integration.
- Using art, theatre and music as tools for building awareness and to convey values in teaching of subjects.
- Innovative school practices/school-based projects following holistic and integrative approach in the framework of basic human values, Constitutional values and those arising from contemporary concerns.
- Violence prevention and corporal punishment in schools
- Holistic programmes for developing pro-peace attitudes and skills for empowering self for different target groups including those from minority and backward classes, and groups with special needs.
- Building conflict resolution and communication skills-listening, empathy, dialogues and negotiation for harmonious relationships.
- Parental guidance and community awareness programmes for education in values/peace.
- Promoting partnerships between home-school-community
- Media literacy programmes for different stakeholders
- Peer to peer programmes involving students as catalysts for peace building.
- Creative leadership and value-based management of schools
- Guidance and counseling as proactive intervention for personal-social and ethical development
- Peace-oriented textual materials and pedagogical practices
- Strengthening pre-service teacher education for promoting institutional culture of values and peace
- Innovative classroom practices, competencies for value development
- Curriculum possibilities for integration of values in teaching of school subjects.
- Researches (policy research/action research/case studies/success stories/impact studies/cross-cultural studies) on education for values with reference to teacher education, school curriculum, critical appraisal of textbooks, pedagogy, assessment and evaluation etc. in the Indian context.
Nature of Activities
- Training/extension programmes/refresher/enrichment courses for teachers/teacher educators/administrators and other groups of stakeholders.
- Development of material/resource material (print/audio-visual, computer-aided graphics) for different stakeholders on outlined themes covering basic human values and Constitutional values.
- Advocacy and awareness generation programmes for students, parents, community and other stakeholders.
- National and state level workshops, seminars and conferences.
- Networking programmes at national, regional and state levels for showcasing, disseminating and synergizing education for values.
- Ordinarily, central government agencies, educational institutions, teacher- training institutions, university departments, Panchayati Raj institution registered societies, voluntary organisations, public trusts/non-profit making organisations in the area would be eligible for assistance under this scheme. Agencies which are not legal entities will not ordinarily be eligible.
- A special procedure and eligibility may be evolved on the lines of the norms and procedures prevailing in Central Institute of Educational Technology, NCERT for organisations concerned with production of audio-video programmes.
- As far as the voluntary agencies, public trusts and non-profit making organizations are concerned, in order to be eligible for financial assistance under this scheme they should:
- have a proper constitution/articles of association;
- have a properly constituted managing body with its powers and duties clearly defined in the constitution;
- be in a position to secure the involvement, on voluntary basis, of knowledgeable persons for furtherance of their programmes;
- not be run for the profit of any individual or a body of individuals;
- not discriminate against any person or group of persons on the grounds of sex, religion, caste or creed;
- not directly function for the furtherance of the interest of any political party;
- not in any manner incite communal disharmony;
- not proselytize;
- eschew violence;
- have been in existence for at least three years.
- In order to be eligible, besides other considerations, the proposal should clearly indicate the profile of the beneficiaries, their level, age, geographical location, affiliation etc.
- As far as the voluntary agencies, public trusts and non-profit making organizations are concerned, in order to be eligible for financial assistance under this scheme:
- they should have been in existence for three years and can submit the audited statement of accounts for the same, which would be considered for assistance under this scheme.
- the credibility and capacity of an organisation will be primary criterion for grant of assistance under the scheme (which would be assessed by the pre-project appraisal committee).
- the Grant -in-Aid Committee (GIAC), however, at any point of time may subject any organisation/institution taking benefit under the scheme to evaluation by an expert or committee of experts.
Methodology of Scheme Implementation
The Department of Educational Psychology and Foundations of Education (DEPEE/NIE) NCERT has been designed to function as the nodal centre for developing and implementing the scheme, along with the regional centres in five Regional Institute of Education (RIEs) located at Ajmer, Bhopal, Mysore, Shillong and Bhubaneswar. An advertisement for inviting applications would be put up in the leading news papers, and also on NCERT website (www.ncert.nic.in) for inviting applications. The applicants will submit their proposals region- wise to the concerned Regional Institutes of Education (please see application form), however, the organizations located in Delhi and National Capital Region will submit their application to the nodal centre at NIE/NCERT, Delhi. The nodal centre as well as the REIs will constitute various committees like Pre Project Appraisal Committee (PPAC) and committee/panel of experts for processing applications, and Grant–in–Aid Committee (GIAC) at NIE/NCERT, for final review and recommendations.
Dr. S. C. Roy, Associate Professor, NERIE is the coordinator for this program in the NERIE.